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Facts about Peru

Peru covers 1,285,216 km2 (496,225 sq mi). It borders Ecuador and Colombia to the north, Brazil to the east, Bolivia to the southeast, Chile to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

Peru is a multiethnic country formed by different groups over five centuries. Amerindians inhabited Peruvian territory for several millennia before the Spanish Conquest of the 16th century; according to historian David N. Cook their population decreased from nearly 5–9 million in the 1520s to around 600,000 in 1620 mainly because of infectious diseases. Spaniards and Africans arrived in large numbers under colonial rule, mixing widely with each other and indigenous peoples. Gradual European immigration from England, France, Germany, Italy, and Spain followed independence. Chinese arrived in the 1850s, replacing slave workers, and have since greatly influenced Peruvian society. There are 15 uncontacted Amerindian tribes in Peru